What Causes Infertility?


Causes

A wide range of physical and emotional factors can cause infertility. Infertility may be due to problems in the woman, man, or both.

FEMALE INFERTILITY:


Female infertility may occur when:
  • A fertilized egg or embryo does not survive once it sticks to the lining of the womb (uterus)
  • The fertilized egg does not attach to the lining of the uterus
  • The eggs cannot move from the ovaries to the womb
  • The ovaries have problems producing eggs

Female infertility may be caused by:

Causes
  • Autoimmune disorders,such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)
  • Cancer or tumor
  • Clotting disorders
  • Diabetes
  • Growths (such as fibroids or polyps) in the uterus and cervix
  • Birth defects that affect the reproductive tract
  • Excessive exercising
  • Eating disorders or poor nutrition
  • Use of certain medications, including chemotherapy drugs
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Obesity
  • Older age
  • Ovarian cysts and polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)
  • Pelvic infection or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Scarring from sexually transmitted infection or endometriosis
  • Surgery to prevent pregnancy (tubal ligation) or failure of tubal ligation reversal
  • Thyroid, disease
  • Too little or too much of certain hormones

MALE INFERTILITY:

Male infertility may be due to:

  • A decrease in sperm count
  • Sperm being blocked from being released
  • Sperm that do not work properly

Male infertility can be caused by:
  • Environmental pollutants
  • Being in high heat for prolonged periods
  • Birth defects
  • Heavy use of alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine
  • Too little or too much hormones
  • Impotence
  • Infection
  • Older age
  • Cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation
  • Scarring from sexually transmitted diseases, injury, or surgery>
  • Surgery to prevent pregnancy (vasectomy), or failure of vasectomy reversal
  • Retrograde ejaculation
  • Smoking
  • Use of certain drugs, such as cimetidine, spironolactone, and nitrofurantoin

In healthy couples under age 30 who have sex regularly, the chance of getting pregnant is about 25 - 30% per month. A woman's peak fertility occurs in her early 20s. After age 35 (and especially 40), the chances that a woman can get pregnant drops considerably.

Causes in either sex leading to Infertility

Causes
Factors that can cause male as well as female infertility are:
    Genetic factors
    • A Robertsonian translocation in either partner may cause recurrent spontaneou abortions or complete infertility.
General factors
  • Diabetes mellitus thyroid disorders, adrenal disease
Hypothalamic-pituitary factors
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Hypopituitarism
  • The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies is associated with an increased risk of unexplained subfertility with an odds ratio of 1.5 and 95% confidence interval of 1.1–2.0.
Environmental factors
  • Toxins such as glues, volatile organic solvents or silicones, physical agents, chemical dusts, and pesticides. Tobacco smokers are 60% more likely to be infertile than non-smokers.



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